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Dan
January, 2010

"Why do you recommend smaller wheels on the smaller size bicycles?"

A short answer to that question is "because we are willing to go to the trouble to make our bicycles fit our customers perfectly every time". We don't want you to have to compromise when it comes to fit, comfort and control. That being said, there's a lot of mis-information out there on this subject (and I do mean a $%^# of a lot!), which requires a long answer as I believe education is the best way to inform and maybe help you, the petite rider, to set aside the blather that's out there regarding this issue.

So, before I give you the long answer to that question (which I promise I will), let me address the mis-information that I'm sure you've heard (or will hear) repeated in bike shops and even some magazine articles around the United States.

Is a vehicle slower because the wheels are Smaller? Is a Porsche slower than a dump truck?
The dump truck has bigger wheels and a more powerful engine, but it's the slower of the two right? The wheel size obviously has nothing to do with the top speed. If it did, we would see huge wheels on race cars. Now, some of you may be convinced already, but for those who need more bicycle specific evidence, please continue.

Push, Push, Push
In recent years, manufacturers have been pushing 700c wheels even on their smaller bikes. This has led some to assume that 700c wheels may be faster or better because they are bigger. Some shops even tell customers "650 wheels are slower" to scare them into purchasing a bicycle that they stock (nothing scares a cyclist like the word 'slow'). As a result, I find myself explaining 700c vs. 650 wheels several times per month. After just completing a series of emails with a 5' tall woman who was unhappy with a 700c bike that she had purchased (not from us), I decided that it was time for a basic article on the subject.

Related Articles:
Rodriguez News Blog series on 650c, 700c, and 26" wheels - The myths, the lies, and the truth
In depth study of the compromises involved in using 700c wheels on small bikes
Graphic illustration of handling and performance compromises by using 700c wheels on small bikes

What is the effect of wheel size on speed?

When someone in the industry (people in the industry should know better) tells a smaller rider "small wheels are slower", what I hear them saying is "riding with knee pain, discomfort in your shoulders, neck, back and numbness in your hands on a bicycle that's harder to control can make you ride faster." This doesn't sound like good advice to me. Especially when there's so much proof that their "smaller=slower" claim is completely false.

The truth is, when someone tells you "smaller wheels are slower", what they are saying is "I have nothing with proportional wheels to offer you". At Rodriguez, we'll offer you either size, and give you the facts about both.

There's really two myths that people are told about why 650c wheels are slower than 700c. We can easily put the facts together to show that both of these both these theories, while having some truth in them, ignore several other aspects of the differences. Those differences easily offset the reasoning that is used by so many in bike shops around the country to try and scare petite riders into bigger wheels.

Warning: Severe Facts Ahead

Slow myth 1.) Salesperson says "Smaller wheels have to make more rotations to travel the same distance."

This part is true. A 650c wheel has to turn 823 rotations to travel 1 mile, while a 700c wheel has to rotate 763 times for the same distance. Salesperson says "More rotations = more friction in the bearings and that causes you to go slower." .....not exactly. All other things being equal, this would be true, but there's more to the equation.

What the salesperson doesn't know, or has neglected to inform you of is that the 650c wheels are 8% lighter than the exact same wheels built in 700c. Think about it. A smaller rim, shorter spokes, smaller tire, tube and rim strip all add up to big weight savings for the 650c. Just for fun, ask that same salesperson if heavier wheels are faster than lighter wheels? We all know of course, that lighter wheels are the best way to speed up any bicycle. That's because of those darn facts again. This time it's rotational mass....read on and see what I'm talking about.

Friction, Bricks, and Rotational Mass
When an object (like a bicycle wheel) is spinning, it is subject to the laws of rotational weight. Rotational weight is the 'evil' that everyone with any size of wheel is trying to get rid of. This is because of rotational mass. Imagine a brick tied to the end of a string. Pretty easy to hold up right? Now swing the brick around in a circle. It feels much heavier. If the brick is lighter and the string is shorter, then it's easier to spin. Rotational weight of a wheel is magnified in this same way. As a wheel starts to spin, all of the weight out at the end of the spokes is 'the brick'. Less rim, spoke, tire, tube, etc. equates to a 'lighter brick' to spin, and a smaller diameter equates to a shorter string. A lighter wheel is much easier to spin up to speed than a heavier one.

Need more scientific evidence than a 'brick on a string'? Here's a scientific article detailing the effect of weight and size on the rotational mass of a spinning object.

"C'mon Dan! That article was way techo-geek speak!" "How about some easy proof that everyone can understand?"
How about spinning ice skater? Here's a quick article of how an ice skater speeds up their spin. By pulling their arms closer to their body, they pick-up speed right?

In short
The 8% weight savings for the 650c wheel sizes easily negates the added friction for the additional rotations that it makes.

Slow myth 2.) Salesperson pulls out a gear chart and illustrates to the customer "Smaller wheels mean that you have to turn the cranks more revolutions to travel the same distance."

Rant Warning
I'm sorry, but I have to pause here to say, if a salesperson ever says that to you, find a way to politely leave the store. You're either dealing with someone who's trying to mislead you, or they really don't know what they're talking about. Either way, I recommend finding another shop. I've had people come to my shop who've been told this very thing by dealers who know better.

OK, rant time is over and now it's time to educate you on why gearing shouldn't even be an issue in this topic.

Gearing
We've already established that one rotation of a smaller wheel is a shorter distance that one rotation on a larger wheels right? So wouldn't one rotation of your cranks results in less forward motion too? Actually, it has all to do with gearing ratio, and nothing to do with wheel size. Now, if you put exactly the same size gears on the 2 different bikes, then the statement would technically be true, but that would be stupid. The gear ratio is selected for your style of riding and your strength. It's the same on a car. A Porsche with small wheels is geared higher than a dump truck. The Porsche with smaller wheels is faster than the large wheel dump truck because the Porsche is geared for higher speed. Does that make sense? We use higher gearing to accommodate for smaller wheels, and lower gearing to accommodate for larger wheels. We can make any wheel size any gearing.

In the bike industry, gear inches are calculated the following way:
(Front chain ring size) ÷ (cog size) x (wheel diameter). For 700c x 25mm tires, use 26.77 for the wheel size. For 650c x 25mm tires, use 24.8 for the wheel size.

As you can see in the sample below, a simple change of one tooth size on the cog or chain ring is all that is required to gear the bikes almost identically. Actually, in the sample below, the 650c wheel bike is geared higher than the 700c. Any shop worth dealing with is going to work with you to determine the right gear ratio for your riding style and strength at no charge anyway.

Here's a quick sample of a common road bike gearing for three different wheel sizes


You can easily see now that it's misleading to assume that all bikes have to use the same gear sizes when showing someone a gear chart. Gearing is a non-issue when it comes to speed and wheel size.

Lee riding her 'chili pepper' bike on a criterion Stacia on her american flag time trial bike crossing the top of a dam at high speed
Slow myth 3.) All serious riders ride 700c. Nobody fast rides small wheels.

"OK, these are all great facts, but are there any world class athletes that ride smaller wheels to victory?" You ask?

Well, I'm glad you asked. You could listen to what Stacia has to say. She set the cycling speed record for the Seattle Danskin Triathlon.

You could take Lee's word for it (if you can catch up with her).

Maybe you'd like to talk to Anna after she won first place in her first Olympic distance triathlon.

No you haven't hear of these people, but if you're a petite cyclist, chances are you've seen them kicking the shorts off of folks out there in the 'regular people' world of cycling that we all live in. we've got thousands of customers out there like Nancy B. who thought 650c wheels would be slow, but have discovered how fast they are.

Again, I'm not trying to say that smaller or bigger wheels are faster or slower, and I don't care what wheel size that you want to ride. I ride 700c wheels on my road bikes, and 26" wheels on my tandems. I think that it's important though that you understand that choosing smaller wheels to make your bike fit will not make is slower.


Are smaller wheels just for the ladies? How about something for the guys? Are there any tall guys who choose to ride smaller wheels professionally? Yes! Some of the worlds fastest bicycles were piloted by men and have really small wheels.

What the heck?
Obviously if bigger wheels were faster, one would expect to find bigger wheels, not smaller wheels, on record setting bicycles that are ridden at speeds of over 150mph. Yet, these guys chose really small wheels. Maybe they didn't talk to the guy at the shop.

Don't believe me? Ask these guys.

Examples like these are easy to find, and number in the thousands. Again, I'm not saying smaller wheels are faster, but just that wheel size isn't determinant of speed.

Still have some questions? email me, I've got plenty of testimonials and other articles on the subject. I've got no incentive to push either wheel size, and I own bicycles with both wheel sizes. I just hate to see people receive bad information and get a bike that doesn't control well and isn't comfortable.


The Real Cause of "Slow"
One thing that everyone can agree on is that discomfort, pain, and low confidence for controlling a bicycle will always result in slower riding. This isn't even up for debate. Feeling comfortable and in control is the best way to speed up your ride. When the industry (or bike shop) is telling smaller riders "bigger wheels are faster", I think what they mean to say is "make my job easier by compromising the comfort, fit, and confidence that taller riders experience."

The real truth is that Comfort and Confidence = Better Performance and Faster Speed.

Why then would the industry try to push one wheel size?
Answer: Profit
- The reason the industry wants to push 700c is that it's easier to spec bikes if all your bikes use the same size of wheel. When you slip a 650 in the mix for your smaller bikes, for instance, now instead of 1,000 of the same 700c forks, you're ordering maybe 800, and then 200 of the 650 forks. This same thing holds true for rims, tubes, spokes, rim strips and tires. In effect, you've just raised your cost on the entire run of 1,000 bikes because you've increased the numbers of individual SKU's as they are called in mass production. If a big bike company orders their bikes in 10,000 unit quantities for each model from a Taiwan or Chinese manufacturer, their costs could increase maybe 20%~25% if they started trying to offer the type of flexibility that a small company like us can give you. Building one bike at a time has its advantages.

By not offering that choice to smaller riders, they put their dealers in the awkward position of having to sell against those of us who do offer that same choice. We don't purchase expensive advertising in magazines, and the big guys do. This gives them some power to influence the opinions of those enthusiasts who subscribe to those magazines including many who work in bike shops.

Giving In:
Many companies just give in to the pressure, and quit offering good fitting smaller bikes rather than go to the trouble to innovate. As you can see, it would be much easier for us too if we just did what they do, and pretend there are no better options for you. Instead, we spend a lot of time and energy to get forks (carbon as well as steel), rims, spokes and tires for our smaller sized customers bikes. We think they deserve the same comfort and control as the 6' tall guys.

Why do Bigger wheels cause a problem on a smaller Bike?
It all boils down to something called Toe Overlap:
If your front wheel hits your foot when you turn, this is called 'toe overlap'. The smaller a frame becomes, the closer the front wheel gets to the rider's foot. A small amount (maybe 1cm or so) of 'toe overlap' can be common on modern bikes, but more than 1cm can be quite a nuisance, especially if the rider wants to use fenders.

Good Design
The main reason we use a smaller wheel on a smaller bike is good design
. A smaller wheel allows us to produce a shorter reach frame with the proper head tube angle for good control while at the same time minimizing any, if not all, toe overlap. Using a 700c wheel on a bike with an effective top tube of less than 53cm requires design gymnastics (or in some cases, cheating a little) to keep this from happening. Design gymnastics result in improperly fitted bikes, or bikes that handle poorly.

Comparision of Toe Overlap on 2 Bikes: A Rodriguez with none, another brand with lots

Note:The bike on the right with the extreme toe overlap was brought into our shop to be looked over after a crash. The rider said that they had swerved to miss a car door, and crashed un-explainably. I can explain the mystery crash. It's obvious to anyone that a sudden maneuver on this bike is dangerous.

The days of yesteryear:
Years ago (1990 and before), we built lots of small bikes with 700c wheels and steel forks. We could change the head tube angle to a more 'slack' degree to move the wheel further out in front of the rider and then build the fork with more 'rake' to accommodate proper handling. The more 'slack' the head tube angle, the more 'rake' is required in the fork to maintain the appropriate 'trail' number. The added rake moved the wheel out even further. Now that carbon forks are the norm, they must be purchased from manufacturers who do not offer products with rakes required to accommodate really slack head tube angles. If we could custom make carbon forks one at a time, the way we used to make steel forks, then we could pull this off, and our jobs would be easier.

The things I've seen:
Smaller bikes with 700c wheels and modern carbon forks have been made by many manufacturers, and I've probably seen them all in the repair shop. The compromises used are many. Here's a list of the compromised designs I've seen:

1.) Completely ignore proportions:
Some manufacturers don't even pretend. They simply make the small frames with a 54cm top tube, just like their bigger frames. So the reach to the handlebars for a 5' tall rider is the same as the 5'8" rider.

I actually appreciate this approach simply because it doesn't pretend to be something it's not.

This compromise will provide the proper stand-over height, but a shorter rider's reach to the bars will be a long trip and a very uncomfortable ride (sore neck, back, arms, shoulders, etc.). Many shorter riders know what I'm talking about as they've never been offered a proper fitting bicycle for most of their life.

2.) Sacrificed performance:
If the head tube angle is made very slack, say 69 degrees or less, that will usually be enough to get the 700c wheel out of the way of the foot of most people who need a top tube of less than 53cm, even with a modern carbon fork. "Why not just do that?" you ask? Well, it gets really technical to explain, but 'trail' is the reason. In short, if a bike has a very slack head tube angle, but not enough rake in the fork, the steering is affected in a very negative way. I actually rode an expensive custom titanium bike made this way a few years back and was shocked at how poorly it handled. I wouldn't have been doing the 'look ma, no hands' trick unless it was followed by the 'look ma, no teeth' trick.

This compromise will result in a bike that handles like a poorly designed chopper. The bike will be hard to control in tight corners, and just not as much fun as it should be.

3.) Resort to Trickery:
Here's a tricky one. If a bike has a modern carbon fork, a 72 degree head tube angle, a top tube length of 51cm, no toe overlap, and 700c wheels, has the company found the magic formula? No. They have artificially shortened the top tube by making the seat tube angle really steep. What this means for the rider is that the seat will have to be pushed all the way back on the rails in order to get the knees in the right pedaling position (unless they like really sore knees). Once the seat is pushed back on the rails to accommodate for thigh length, the reach to the bars becomes the same as if the top tube were 54cm, and the rider is even more un-comfortable than in 'compromise number 1'.

Result - Same as compromise 1 with a little knee pain thrown in as an extra treat. Discomfort and pain always results in slower riding, and that's one thing that everyone can agree on.

4.) Embrace toe-overlap:
Some manufacturers (like the one pictured above) simply sell their smaller bikes with the same head and seat tube angles as they use on their bigger bikes. Then they just put on the big wheels and hope the rider is careful when they turn corners. This has been an option that I've had customers choose, but then return the bike after deciding they didn't like it. As I said before, some folks are fine with it, but for the top tube lengths of 52cm or less, I've rarely had a customer happy with an extreme amount of toe overlap. Remember, most manufacturers will not take the bike back for a refund.

Result - The rider has to be extremely careful not to pedal while cornering. Sudden corrections or swerves will often result in a 'mystery crash' like the one referred to in the photo depiction above. Lost confidence because of the danger will result in slower riding (there's the 'slow' word again).

5.) Use proportional wheels:
Here's an idea....why not go to the extra expense and use a little smaller wheel on the bikes that are smaller? This is the method that companies use when they are trying to provide the best fitting bikes without compromising safety or good performance. It costs a lot more for the manufacturer, and requires a commitment to, and understanding of their customer's needs. We can't pretend that there's no difference, and again, we would love to return to the days of one size wheel for all the bikes, but the fact is that wouldn't be the best for our customers.

We aim to please!
What ever your wishes, we're happy to build a bike for you. If you need a smaller bike, and you really want 700c wheels, we're happy to build that, we just want you to be able to make an educated decision before you spend the money. We make bikes like this several times each year. Most of these customers are willing to accept either toe overlap, or a steel fork to enable us to provide them with good design and no toe overlap. Suffice to say, that there is a method to our madness!